Upon completion of the topic, one should be able to :
1) Describe the meaning of management
2) Identify the function of Management
3) Appraise the roles of managers
4) Review the main skills of managers
5) Discuss perspectives in management
Before going further with the subject, first of all, one should be able to differentiate between professional and manager.
Definition Of Management
Based on the illustration above therefore the management can be defined as :-
The process of overseeing and coordinating resources efficiently and effectively in line with the goals of the organizations
Who are Managers
A manager is an individual who is directly responsible for ensuring that tasks are performed by people or employees in an organisation
Functions of Management
Assentials Skills of Managers
1. Conceptual Skills
Conceptual skill refers to the ability to view the organization as a whole, and the impact of the different sections have on the organisation, as a whole and on each other. Also involved observing how an organisation adapts to or is affected by external environmental factors such as society, economic pressure, customers and competition.
2. Interpersonal Skills
Interpersonal skills refer to ability to work well with other people. Managers with good interpersonal skills work more effectively in a group, encouraging others employee to input their ideas and comments as well as being receptive to the needs and views of others.
3. Technical Skills
Technical skills refer to the ability to apply procedure, techniques and specialised knowledge required in certain tasks.
Types Of Managers
Basically there are three level of Managers, namely:
1. Top-Level Managers. The highest level managers in the organisations. They are commonly known as executives. Title given such as president, chief executive officer, vice president or chief financial officer. Most of the times spend on PLANNING and SETTING GOALS.
2. Middle-level managers. They are usually designated as managers. Most of their times use for define goals for specific projects for lower level managers to implement.
3. Lower-Level Managers or Line manager. The lowest in the management ladder. They are usually called supervisors. They include production supervisors, who oversee employees in a factory. They focus on giving instructions/directions and controlling their subordinates at work daily to ensure the success of the projects.
1. Classical Perspective. Existed in early 19th Century and early 20th century. It focused on the rational and sciectific approaches to the study of management, and on finding way to mould an organisation to become more efficient.There are three sub-classes in this perspective, namely :
1.1.1 Using theSciencetific approach to determine best practices and not relying on “rules of thumb”1.1.2 Selecting suitable employees to perform a particular task. Suitability covers mental and physical aspects.1.1.3 Training and developing employee so that he is able to perform a given task according to established procedures1.1.4 Giving monetary incentives to ensure that employees perform a task accordingly1.1.5 Reassigning all responsibilities relating to planning and organising to the manager.
1.2.1 Authorithy and clearly defined responsibilities1.2.2 Position in the organisation that are structured according to hierachy1.2.3 Promotions based on qualifications1.2.4 Recors of all administrative actions and decisions to ensure continuity of organisational rules1.2.5 Saparation of management and ownership1.2.6 Guidelines implemented to all employees without bias.
1.3.1 Division of Labour. The concept on specialisation of work based on following assumptions(a) No one can do all the work(b) Each job requires different skills(c) Repeatition of works will increase efficiency1.3.2 Authority. The right to give directions and power to be complied with.1.3.3 Disciplines. Based on respect and comformity.1.3.4 Unity of Command. An employee should recieved instructions from one superior only.1.3.5 Unity of direction. One superior and one direction for a particular activity with the same objective.1.3.6 Subordination of individual Interests to the general interests. Personal interest should not precede or exceed over common interest.1.3.7 Remuneration. Salary payment based on various factors.1.3.8 Centralisation. The centralisation of works depends on the situation and formal communication channel,1.3.9 Scalar Chain. This is about the line of authority and its formal communication channel.1.3.10 Order. Resources are allocated in the right place at the right time.1.3.11 Equity. Form out of justice and virtue1.3.12 Stability of tenure. This is necessity in good human resources planning1.3.13 Initiative. This is the hope that employees will work diligently and sincerity.1.3.14 Esperit de Cotps. Loyalty and devotion in uniting the members of a group. It emphasises on harmony and unity in an organisation.