Category Archives: Lecture Notes

7 Ways to Foster Employee Motivation

Employee motivation is a continuing challenge at work. Particularly in work environments that don’t emphasize employee satisfaction as part of an embraced and supported overall business strategy, supervisors and managers walk a tough road.

On the one hand, they recognize their power in drawing forth the best employees have to offer; on the other, they feel unsupported, rewarded or recognized themselves for their work to develop motivated, contributing employees.

My word to managers? Get over it. No work environment will ever perfectly support your efforts to help employees choose motivated behaviors at work. Even the most supportive workplaces provide daily challenges and often appear to operate at cross purposes with your goals and efforts to encourage employee motivation.

The worst workplaces for employees? Let’s not even go there. They struggle to engage a fraction of their employees’ motivation and desire to contribute. They never obtain their employees’ discretionary energy.

No matter what climate your organization provides to support employee motivation, you can, within the perimeters of your areas of responsibility, and even beyond, if you choose to extend your reach, create an environment that fosters and calls forth employee motivation.

Seven Opportunities to Influence Employee Motivation

You can, daily, take actions that will increase employee satisfaction. Recommended are actions that employees say, in a recent Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM) survey, are important to their job satisfaction. Management actions in these areas will create a work environment conducive to employee motivation.

Additionally, in determining the areas in which to provide employee motivation tips, here are key ideas from readers about how to increase employee motivation and employee job satisfaction.

Four of the five most important considerations in employee motivation: job security, benefits (especially health care) with the importance of retirement benefits rising with age of the employee, compensation/pay, and safety in the work environment are discussed in an article that addresses issues that are company-wide and rarely in the hands of an individual manager or supervisor.

Specific Actions to Increase Employee Motivation

These are seven consequential ways in which a manager or supervisor can create a work environment that will foster and influence increases in employee motivation – quickly.

Communicate responsibly and effectively any information employees need to perform their jobs most effectively. Employees want to be members of the in-crowd, people who know what is happening at work as soon as other employees know. They want the information necessary to do their jobs. They need enough information so that they make good decisions about their work.

  • Meet with employees following management staff meetings to update them about any company information that may impact their work. Changing due dates, customer feedback, product improvements, training opportunities, and updates on new departmental reporting or interaction structures are all important to employees. Communicate more than you think is necessary.
  • Stop by the work area of employees who are particularly affected by a change to communicate more. Make sure the employee is clear about what the change means for their job, goals, time allocation, and decisions.
  • Communicate daily with every employee who reports to you. Even a pleasant “good morning” enables the employee to engage with you.
  • Hold a weekly one-on-one meeting with each employee who reports to you. They like to know that they will have this time every week. Encourage employees to come prepared with questions, requests for support, troubleshooting ideas for their work, and information that will keep you from being blindsided or disappointed by a failure to produce on schedule or as committed.

Employees find interaction and communication with and attention from senior and executive managers motivational. In a recent study by Towers Perrin (now Towers Watson), the Global Workforce Study which included nearly 90,000 workers from 18 countries, the role of senior managers in attracting employee discretionary effort exceeded that of immediate supervisors.

  • Communicate openly, honestly and frequently. Hold whole staff meetings periodically, attend department meetings regularly, and communicate by wandering around work areas engaging staff and demonstrating interest in their work.
  • Implement an open door policy for staff members to talk, share ideas, and discuss concerns. Make sure that managers understand the problems that they can and should solve will be directed back to them, but it is the executive’s job to listen.
  • Congratulate staff on life events such as new babies, inquire about vacation trips, and ask about how both personal and company events turned out. Care enough to stay tuned into these kinds of employee life events and activities.


Provide the opportunity for employees to develop their skills and abilities. Employees want to continue to develop their knowledge and skills. Employees do not want jobs that they perceive as no-brain drudge work.

  • Allow staff members to attend important meetings, meetings that cross functional areas, and that the supervisor normally attends.
  • Bring staff to interesting, unusual events, activities, and meetings. It’s quite a learning experience for a staff person to attend an executive meeting with you or represent the department in your absence.
  • Make sure the employee has several goals that he or she wants to pursue as part of every quarter’s performance development plan (PDP). Personal development goals belong in the same plan.
  • Reassign responsibilities that the employee does not like or that are routine. Newer staff, interns, and contract employees may find the work challenging and rewarding. Or, at least, all employees have their turn.
  • Provide the opportunity for the employee to cross-train in other roles and responsibilities. Assign backup responsibilities for tasks, functions, and projects.

Employees gain a lot of motivation from the nature of and the work itself. Employees seek autonomy and independence in decision making and in how they approach accomplishing their work and job.

  • Provide more authority for the employee to self-manage and make decisions. Within the clear framework of the PDP and ongoing effective communication, delegate decision making after defining limits, boundaries, and critical points at which you want to receive feedback.
  • Expand the job to include new, higher level responsibilities. Assign responsibilities to the employee that will help him or her grow their skills and knowledge. Stretching assignments develop staff capabilities and increase their ability to contribute at work. (Remove some of the time-consuming, less desirable job components at the same time, so the employee does not feel that what was delegated was “more” work.)
  • Provide the employee a voice in higher level meetings; provide more access to important and desirable meetings and projects.
  • Provide more information by including the employee on specific mailing lists, in company briefings, and in your confidence.
  • Provide more opportunity for the employee to impact department or company goals, priorities, and measurements.
  • Assign the employee to head up projects or teams. Assign reporting staff members to his or her leadership on projects or teams or under his or her direct supervision.
  • Enable the employee to spend more time with his or her boss. Most employees find this attention rewarding.

Elicit and address employee concerns and complaints before they make an employee or workplace dysfunctional. Listening to employee complaints and keeping the employee informed about how you are addressing the complaint are critical to producing a motivating work environment. (These are employee complaints that readers identify as regularly occurring in their workplaces.)

Even if the complaint cannot be resolved to the employee’s satisfaction, the fact that you addressed the complaint and provided feedback about the consideration of and resolution of the complaint to the employee is appreciated. The importance of the feedback loop in addressing employee concerns cannot be overemphasized.

  • Keep your door open and encourage employees to come to you with legitimate concerns and questions.
  • Always address and provide feedback to the employee about the status of their expressed concern. The concern or complaint cannot disappear into a dark hole forever. Nothing causes more consternation for an employee than feeling that their legitimate concern went unaddressed.

Recognition of employee performance is high on the list of employee needs for motivation. Many supervisors equate reward and recognition with monetary gifts. While employees appreciate money, they also appreciate praise, a verbal or written thank you, out-of-the-ordinary job content opportunities, and attention from their supervisor.

  • Write a thank you note that praises and thanks an employee for a specific contribution in as much detail as possible to reinforce and communicate to the employee the behaviors you want to continue to see.
  • Verbally praise and recognize an employee for a contribution. Visit the employee in his or her work space.
  • Give the employee a small token of your gratitude. A card, their favorite candy bar, a cutting from a plant in your office, fruit for the whole office, and more, based on the traditions and interaction in your office, will make an employee’s day.

Employees appreciate a responsive and involved relationship with their immediate supervisor.

  • Avoid cancelling regular meetings, and if you must, stop by the employee’s work area to apologize, offer the reason, and immediately reschedule. Regularly missing an employee meeting send a powerful message of disrespect.
  • Talk daily with each employee who reports to you. The daily interaction builds the relationship and will stand for a lot when times are troubled, disappointments occur, or you need to address employee performance improvement.
  • The interaction of an employee with his or her immediate supervisor is the most significant factor in an employee’s satisfaction with work. Practice just listening.Encourage the employee who brings you an idea or improvement. Even if you think the idea won’t work, that the idea has been unsuccessfully tried in the past, or you believe your executive leadership won’t support it, this is not what the employee wants to hear from the supervisor.And, it’s not in your best interests for employee motivation to put the kibosh on employee contributions and ideas. You’ll tick them off, deflate them, and make their thoughts insignificant.
  • Think creatively about how you can explore the idea, support the employee in his or her quest to try out the innovation, provide time for experimentation, and more. Encouragement brings payback in positive employee motivation.
  • Remember that your nonverbal communication communicates more expressively than the words you use to convey your honest response to employee thoughts, concerns, and suggestions. Pay attention, ask questions to further elicit information, and focus on understanding the employee’s communication. Lose your reactions: shrugged shoulders, rolling eyes, or partial attention are insulting and degrading.
  • The supervisor’s relationship to reporting staff is the single most important factor in employee retention. Stay on top of what your staff needs and wants to provide a work environment for employee motivation.

Employee motivation is a common interest from supervisors and managers who are responsible to oversee the work of other employees. You can increase your efforts to improve employee motivation. The big seven actions and behaviors that you can make happen every day for employee motivation are covered in this article. I’m willing to make a serious bet that, if you pay constant attention to these significant factors in employee motivation, you’ll win with motivated, excited, contributing employees. Can work get any better than that for a manager or supervisor?

Extracted from :


Korelasi dan Regresi Linear mudah (ppt)

Bab 7 Korelasi dan Regresi Linear mudah


Topic 1 General Security Management
Topic 2 Roles of Security Management in the Organisation
Topic 3 The Security Supervisors Role
Topic 4 The Individual Security Employee
Topic 5 Security Personnel Management
Topic 6 Training and Discipline
Topic 7 Promotion and Communication
Topic 8 Operational Management
Topic 9 Security Survey and Office Administration
Topic 10 Policies and Procedures in Security Management
Topic 11 Computers in Security Management
Topic 12 Statistics as a Security Management Tool


Topic 1 Management Commitment
Topic 2 Safety and Health Programme
Topic 3 Motivating Safety and Health
Topic 4 Hazard Identification
Topic 5 Analysing Hazards
Topic 6 Occupational Injuries and Illnesses
Topic 7 Industrial Hygiene
Topic 8 Intervention_Controls and Prevention
Topic 9 Accident Prevention Techniques
Topic 10 Safety and Health Training

Writing Skills

Getting Your Written Message Across Clearly

A colleague has just sent you an email relating to a meeting you’re having in one hour’s time. The email is supposed to contain key information that you need to present, as part of the business case for an important project.

But there’s a problem: The email is so badly written that you can’t find the data you need. There are misspellings and incomplete sentences, and the paragraphs are so long and confusing that it takes you three times more than it should to find the information you want.

As a result, you’re under-prepared for the meeting, and it doesn’t go as well as you want it to.

Have you ever faced a situation similar to this? In today’s information overload world, it’s vital to communicate clearly, concisely and effectively. People don’t have time to read book-length emails, and they don’t have the patience to scour badly-constructed emails for “buried” points.

The better your writing skills are, the better the impression you’ll make on the people around you – including your boss, your colleagues, and your clients. You never know how far these good impressions will take you!

In this article, we’ll look at how you can improve your writing skills and avoid common mistakes.

Audience and Format

The first step to writing clearly is choosing the appropriate format. Do you need to send an informal email? Write a detailed report? Create advertising copy? Or write a formal letter?

The format, as well as your audience, will define your “writing voice” – that is, how formal or relaxed the tone should be. For instance, if you write an email to a prospective client, should it have the same tone as an email to a friend?

Definitely not.

Start by identifying who will read your message. Is it targeted at senior managers, the entire human resources team, or a small group of engineers? With everything you write, your readers, or recipients, should define your tone as well as aspects of the content.

Composition and Style

Once you know what you’re writing, and for whom you’re writing, you actually have to start writing.

A blank, white computer screen is often intimidating. And it’s easy to get stuck because you don’t know how to start. Try these tips for composing and styling your document:

Start with your audience – Remember, your readers may know nothing about what you’re telling them. What do they need to know first?

Create an outline – This is especially helpful if you’re writing a longer document such as a report, presentation, or speech. Outlines help you identify which steps to take in which order, and they help you break the task up into manageable pieces of information.

Use AIDA – If you’re writing something that must inspire action in the reader, follow the Attention-Interest-Desire-Action (AIDA) formula. These four steps can help guide you through the writing process.

Try some empathy – For instance, if you’re writing a sales letter for prospective clients, why should they care about your product or sales pitch? What’s the benefit for them? Remember your audience’s needs at all times.

Use the Rhetorical Triangle – If you’re trying to persuade someone to do something, make sure that you communicate why people should listen to you, pitch your message in a way that engages your audience, and present information rationally and coherently. Our article on the Rhetorical Triangle can help you make your case in the most effective way.

Identify your main theme – If you’re having trouble defining the main theme of your message, pretend that you have 15 seconds to explain your position. What do you say? This is likely to be your main theme.

Use simple language – Unless you’re writing a scholarly article, it’s usually best to use simple, direct language. Don’t use long words just to impress people.

Your document should be as “reader friendly” as possible. Use headings, subheadings, bullet points, and numbering whenever possible to break up the text.

After all, what’s easier to read – a page full of long paragraphs, or a page that’s broken up into short paragraphs, with section headings and bullet points? A document that’s easy to scan will get read more often than a document with long, dense paragraphs of text.

Headers should grab the reader’s attention. Using questions is often a good idea, especially in advertising copy or reports, because questions help keep the reader engaged and curious.

In emails and proposals, use short, factual headings and subheadings, like the ones in this article.

Adding graphs and charts is also a smart way to break up your text. These visual aids not only keep the reader’s eye engaged, but they can communicate important information much more quickly than text.

Grammatical Errors

You probably don’t need us to tell you that errors in your document will make you look unprofessional. It’s essential to learn grammar properly, and to avoid common mistakes that your spell checker won’t find.

Here are some examples of commonly misused words:


“Affect” is a verb meaning to influence. (Example: The economic forecast will affect our projected income.)
“Effect” is a noun meaning the result or outcome. (Example: What is the effect of the proposal?)


“Then” is typically an adverb indicating a sequence in time. (Example: We went to dinner, then we saw a movie.)
“Than” is a conjunction used for comparison. (Example: The dinner was more expensive than the movie.)


“Your” is a possessive. (Example: Is that your file?)
“You’re” is a contraction of “you are.” (Example: You’re the new manager.)
Note: Also watch out for other common homophones (words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings) – such as their/they’re/there, to/too/two, and so on.

“Its” is a possessive. (Example: Is that its motor?)
“It’s” is a contraction of “It is.” (Example: It’s often that heavy.) (Yes, it is this way around!)

Company’s/companies (and other possessives versus plurals)

“Company’s” indicates possession. (Example: The company’s trucks hadn’t been maintained properly.)
“Companies” is plural. (Example: The companies in this industry are suffering.)
To learn more about commonly misused words, misused apostrophes, and other grammatical errors, take our Bite-Sized Training session on Written Communication.

Some of your readers – arguably an increasing number – won’t be perfect at spelling and grammar. They may not notice if you make these errors. But don’t use this as an excuse: there will usually be people, senior managers in particular, who WILL notice!

Because of this, everything you write should be of a quality that every reader will find acceptable.


The enemy of good proofreading is speed. Many people rush through their documents, but this is how you miss mistakes. Follow these guidelines to check what you’ve written:

Proof your headers and subheaders – People often skip these and focus on the text alone. Just because headers are big and bold doesn’t mean they’re error free!

Read the document out loud – This forces you to go more slowly, so that you’re more likely to catch mistakes.

Use your finger to follow text as you read – This is another trick that helps you slow down.

Start at the end of your document – Proofread one sentence at a time, working your way from the end to the beginning. This helps you focus on errors, not on content.

Key Points

More than ever, it’s important to know how to communicate your point quickly and professionally. Many people spend a lot of time writing and reading, so the better you are at this form of communication, the more successful you’re likely to be.

Identify your audience before you start creating your document. And if you feel that there’s too much information to include, create an outline to help organize your thoughts. Learning grammatical and stylistic techniques will also help you write more clearly; and be sure to proof the final document. Like most things, the more you write, the better you’re going to be!

MPW2133 – Malaysian Studies (Tutorial 1 Summary) – Contribution from Rabiha MA

MPW2133 – Malaysian Studies (Summary of Tutorial 1)

BBPP1103: Management Principles (Topic 9 – 11)

BBPP1103: Management Principles (Topic 9 – Controlling)

BBPP1103: Management Principles (Topic 10 – Managing Teams)

BBPP1103: Management Principles (Topic 11 – Innovation and Change)

Contributions from Pn Khatijah Omar. All right reserved®